Pediatrics is a branch of medical science whose main task is to preserve or restore the health of the child in order to allow to realize its innate vital capacity.
A pediatrician observes a baby from the first days of his life. The first year of a baby’s life is extremely important for its health and further development; therefore, in the first year of a child’s life, it is necessary to examine it monthly. The pediatrician monitors the development of the child, gives advice to mothers for nursing, breastfeeding, complementary feeding, immunization (vaccination), and disease prevention. In case of illness, the pediatrician will diagnose and prescribe the correct treatment.
Conditionally, in a single practical science of pediatrics, prophylactic, clinical, scientific, social, ecological pediatrics is distinguished.
Preventive pediatrics — a system of measures that contribute to the prevention of diseases and disability (preventive vaccinations, asepsis, prevention of rickets, screening programs for the detection of hereditary diseases, routine medical examinations, etc.)
Clinical pediatrics has the main task of diagnosis, treatment and staged rehabilitation of a sick child.
Scientific pediatrics has the task of formulating paradigms that the pediatrician is currently guided by in its practical work. A paradigm is a disciplinary matrix, a set of scientific achievements recognized by all, which for a certain time give the scientific community a model for posing problems and their solutions (Thomas Kuhn).
Social pediatrics examines two groups of problems: 1) the optimal organization of health management, including economics and planning; 2) the influence of social factors on the health of children; the practice of medical care, preventive measures, the relationship between doctors and community organizations, foundations; medical education and education of the population.
Environmental pediatrics studies the effects of natural factors on children’s health; climatic, geographical, and also harmful environmental factors in a particular region (insecticides, pesticides, phenol, dioxide, sulfur dioxide, lead, penetrating radiation, etc.).
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